Teaching Year 8. So complicated; and yet so simple.

Screen shot 2014-10-12 at 10.18.51

Classic science: A mixture of elements can be separated. And magnets are amazing things!


It’s over 10 years since I’ve taught a KS3 class in a comprehensive school.  Gosh! I’m using some skills I haven’t needed in a while and, in the last few weeks, I’ve been getting my match-fitness back, dusting off the rust and oiling those wheels.

My Year 8 class is a mid-range ability group with 26 students. Our first topic is about Elements, Mixtures and Compounds. We’re exploring the concept of particles and kinetic theory to explain states of matter and phenomena such as evaporation and diffusion; we’re looking at the idea that elements have characteristic properties and that, after undergoing chemical reactions, atoms join to make compounds.   There is a rich array of practical work in the scheme of work, lots of very fundamental theoretical ideas and a goes dose of awe and wonder.  Everyone loves pulling the iron filings out of the sulphur powder – it’s magical.

So, the material is great.  It’s certainly possible to pitch it high so everyone is challenged; it’s also possible to make it accessible for everyone in the class.   The challenge and complexity for me comes from the dynamics and diversity of the individuals in the group.  I don’t think I’ve ever had a class that was so heterogeneous.

Meet some of the characters: (All  names and some details changed – this is impressionistic to preserve anonymity but otherwise entirely real.)

Shafik.  Bursting with enthusiasm. Great background knowledge but holds a few misconceptions.  Hand up all the time. Great homework. He goes beyond, bringing in ideas of all kinds.  He did a presentation on his chosen element and threw in the full Elements song (by Tom Lehrer) completely unsolicited.  A joy to teach.

Ruby.  Conscientious and insightful.  Excellent written work and able to give deep verbal responses.  I’m surprised she’s not in the highest ability group – but actually her presence tells me that the setting is approximate with tons of overlap which is great.  She’s one of a core group I think of when planning my lessons – Ruby must be challenged!

Abdul.  Very quiet. Never volunteers answers except when I select him.   Writes really well and shows very good understanding – but you’d never know it from an unstructured free-form discussion.  He’s too shy to jump in.  Looking at the data he’s got top CATS scores; he’s a classic case of a student it would be easy to under-estimate.

Suki.  Hard to work out.  Looks at me with suspicion and doubt and avoids eye-contact most of the time.  Gives that ‘do not ask me a question’ look when I call her to attention and a hateful glare when I ignore that and ask her anyway.  Always in a bad mood, doesn’t do the homework very well and defaults to one-word answers or incomplete sentences.   We’re going to need a chat pretty soon so sort all this out.

Josh.  It’s like having a puppy in the room.  Up and down. Hyperactive.  Wants to answer every question. Wants to touch everything. Is capable of some insightful  explanations using concepts like particles and kinetic energy. But will not write a single word unless forced to in very controlled conditions. His work was profiled in this post about re-drafting. He needs very firm boundaries just to comply with basics and is aware of his relative immaturity compared to others which seems to pain him.  Boy, can he sulk!  He could hit the buffers with our new behaviour system so I’ll need to work closely with him on that.

Mo.   Seems to be hugely under-confident with English; rarely speaks and writes very slowly with massive letters.  Needs prompts and scaffolds to get him to form a full spoken sentence but appears to chat merrily away to his partner.  I can’t work out what he thinks about the science because, so far, his written work and oral contributions are a barrier.  Mini-whiteboard responses seem ok – he can draw a particle model for evaporation, for example.  Homework? None so far.  It’s as if homework is something he just doesn’t do. Or he finds it too hard and doesn’t have the resources to seek help. I’ll need to get on top of this issue with parents and our outreach team.

Evelyn.  Engaged, lively and charismatic.  Very conscientious.  Lovely, neat work in her book.  But capacity for recall and mental models seems weak.  Lots of conceptual errors on basics.  This doesn’t seem to trouble her nearly enough.  She seems to  have developed some good masking strategies – doing things well without learning much – so I need to push her further every way I possibly can.

Toby.   Written work and oral work don’t match.  He’s a quiet and sensitive but also keen to offer answers and gives great extended explanations showing strong recall of key concepts.  His written work doesn’t match – it’s quite scatty and hard to read.  I wonder if he’d have been placed in a higher set if his writing was better.  He’s in my thoughts alongside Ruby and I’ve told him that he’ll do as well as anyone in the top sets – so not to worry.

Ronnie.  A nice kid I’m sure but he seems to operate in a parallel space where time runs slowly.  I’m explaining diffusion but he’s somewhere else.  I imagine the he sits there in a fog of random thoughts – ‘ great, last lesson, it’s nearly teatime, what’s this bloke on about, is this science?, look at the picture, he looks really funny, I’m tired now, that pizza at lunch was horrible,….’ and then, suddenly, I burst his bubble with ‘Ronnie……Ronnie… are you with us?  I’ve asked you how smells travel across a room?’  He can’t focus for more than three minutes – so his written work is shocking – and his natural state is to face away from me, wherever I stand in the room.  I want to hold his face in a some kind of metaphysical clamp so he has to focus on what’s going on.  Again, a one-to-one may be needed very soon so we form some kind of connection.

So – there they are. My Year 8s.  Every learning sequence in the lessons is punctuated by reminders, calls to attention, little pieces of rule reinforcement.  We’re getting better at stopping and starting but it never ceases to amaze me how hard some students find this – especially when they’ve got equipment to play with.   I’m trying to work out the best balance of practical work, theory work with direct explanations from the front and demonstrations.  I think I’ve over-planned most lessons with too many phases and not enough heads-down consolidation with questions.  I’ll need to address that.  Homework has been good -but a few have struggled with the open-ended tasks.  I must remember to give some scaffolding to those that need it.  That’s a basic error; I could get away with it at KEGS but not in this class.    I think the top-end challenge is going well; I’m teaching this topic with similar expectations of the depth that I’d have had at KEGS and the students are responding; they seem to relish being asked to learning things off by heart.

So simple?

On the face of it, there is nothing simple at all about teaching this class.  It’s  hard work to juggle all the different modes of my output with the different learning needs of all those students.  It’s the mental equivalent of herding cats.

But the simplicity comes from necessity; the need to stay focused on some key things over and over again, setting high expectations and insisting on them with a relentless focus on some clear and challenging objectives for the learning at each point.  Simplicity does not remotely suggest lowering expectations – it’s about keeping sharply focused on an idea, reinforcing it in multiple ways.

Where I’ve lost the plot a couple of times it’s been because I’ve lost focus on the specific ideas, getting bogged down in procedures; trying to tackle too  many learning points at once or failing to create time to secure the learning from a practical task.  It’s been all ‘doing stuff’ without the substance.   I’m also finding that simplicity is needed in securing improvement with listening, using full sentences, good presentation, using proper terminology and so on.  It’s about repeating the same messages over and over again, applying them to every student.  Yes, Ronnie, that includes you!!

I’ll keep you posted.


10 Silver Arrows: Ideas to penetrate the armour of ingrained practice



One arrow, aimed at the right place…..that’s all it takes.

Silver Arrows?

It’s very hard to change your practice.  We’re all so busy, very often it is difficult to create space to fully explore a set of ideas and to deliberately adapt our teaching routines to absorb something new.  At the same time, we’re often bombarded with initiatives and issues to address.  It can be overwhelming.  I’ve been thinking about the possibility of stripping down each initiative or development area to something very simple; one idea that captures the spirit of a wider set of strategies.  This would be the thing where you could say if you do just one thing, do this.  A Silver Arrow is one that you allow to penetrate your armour; it changes what you routinely do.

There isn’t a definitive research-informed list; I’m presenting a set of ideas that I think make good Silver Arrow contenders based on my own teaching.   You will have your own set of arrows that carry that message: if you do just one thing, do this.  Here is mine:

1. Behaviour Management: Signal. Pause. Insist. 

Effective classroom management is multi-faceted but if you can do this, you can do anything.   A class is full of students talking – on entry or after an activity or discussion:

  • Signal:  You give the agreed signal for attention
  • Pause: You wait, adopting an assertive stance and position in the room, scanning for eye contact;
  • Insist:  You insist on full attention.  Michael…Suki… I need you looking this way and listening. ….Thanks. 

You now give the instruction or direction you want to give.  You do not do anything until you have full attention; you expect it, you insist upon it, so it happens.  Signal. Pause. Insist.

(A Bill Rogers Top 10 Behaviour Strategies)

2. Questioning: ‘In your pairs, discuss’ + dialogue

Instead of ‘hands up’, you ask students to discuss their answers in pairs for a short period and then you call individuals to respond, reporting back on their discussion.   You then engage in a dialogue with the respondent, exchanging three or four responses to probe more deeply.

  • What were you saying in your pair? (Reporting back a rehearsed answer or state of confusion)
  • Why do you think that might be the right answer?
  • Can you link that to what James said earlier?
  • Does that happen all the time or just in this case?   And so on.

(The Washing Hands of learning: Think, Pair, Share)

3. Literacy: ‘Say it again properly’; saying it is a rehearsal for writing it. 

The whole-school literacy strategy could be reduced to this:  Every time students give a verbal answer and before they are asked to write anything,   ask them to re-form their intial responses into well-constructed sentences using the key words and phrases you’ve discussed.  Do it relentlessly, every time.

What does the graph tell us?

  • First attempt:  It goes up. 
  • Second attempt:  The speed on impact increases as the mass of the trolley increases. 

4. Marking and Feedback: Close the gap.   

Think about all marking and feedback as a short plan of action. Once you regard marking as a plan for the feedback a student will act upon and nothing more, it helps to keep it in perspective and have more impact.  Only give feedback at the level and frequency that it is practical to be acted upon.  This needs to be linked to giving time for redrafting and for acting on feedback during lessons, as well as for homework – directed improvement and reflection time or DIRT.

Three related posts: Marking in Perspective; Close the Gap marking; Improving the basics

5. Straight teaching: Objectives, explain, model, practice, check    

I find this a useful model; it helps to make sure you’ve taught something properly.

  • Objectives: You know exactly which ideas you want to explore.  The more precise the better.
  • Explain: You walk through the ideas and explain them using models, analogies and examples.
  • Model:  You show your students how to apply the learning to a question or problem, modelling the strategies.
  • Practice: Students now try a few problems themselves; they test out their understanding.
  • Check:  You use a range of feedback strategies to find out how they got on, adjusting the next cycle accordingly.  Importantly, you need to be ready to diverge; some student will get it and will want to move on; some will need more consolidation.

Objectives, Explain, Model, Practice, Check.  Each step is important.

Great Lessons 6: Explaining     Learning objectives vs Tasks

6. Assessment:  Set lots of tests – formatively. 

Repeat after me:  Tests are good.  Once you embrace this idea, your students will shoot forward.  Tests help with recall, developing long-term memory and serve a great way to tell you how well you have taught something.  Micro-tests, self-assessed tests, multiple choice tests and single question long-answer tests all help to flush out misconceptions, areas of weak understanding – and develop memory.   Take time to go over them, making sure that students learn from their mistakes.

Formative use of summative tests.

7. Gifted and Able: Teach to the top:

There are lots of strategies, but the Silver Arrow is the disposition: A total philosophy of G&T.  Use assessment data to identify your three highest performing students.  Imagine that their parents are hawkish and demanding; they (rightly) expect nothing but the best for their children.  Do everything in your power to make them love you because their children are stretched and engaged – always.  If you do that, the thing is – everyone’s a winner.  You are a winner, the top-end students are winners and – here is the clincher – everyone in the class is a winner too.  Teach to the Top and everyone benefits.

8. Homework as Guided Study: “You are not doing it for me; you are doing it for yourself”

That is one of my all-time favourite teacher-clichés. Homework is Guided Study.  You are giving students the tools to learn to study independently.  They are doing this for themselves and not for you.  That helps to put all kinds of things into perspective: the nature of the tasks; the resources you provide and expectations in relation to marking.   As well as questions for practice and consolidation, activities such as pre-learning, making notes and research are all valid, helpful homework tasks.  Activities that link into the next lesson are useful too – everyone brings in work that forms the starting point for the lesson.  The key thing is to make sure students have the tools they need once they leave your classroom.

Great teachers set great homework

9. Hard Work: 10 minutes of silence.

Learning does not flow from engagement; engagement flows from learning.  That’s a good message to hold on to.  Sometimes, after a whole series of activities and discussions, you just need students to get on with some work on their own.  10 minutes of silence is a great way to create an atmosphere of hard-working, heads-down endeavour.  It’s almost a treat after all the noise of a classroom exchange.   You are making hard work a positive experience by showing students how much progress they make in a short focused burst.  Crucially, the silence has to be a warm, peaceful silence; not the silence of discipline and dread.

Pedagogy Postcard #4: Working in Silence

10. Creative Opportunities:  for open-endedness, respond in any format

To mix things up a bit and to give students some scope for making decisions about their learning, I like the open-format response strategy.  If you have done some research, explored some ideas or finished a topic, it can generate fantastic responses if you ask students to capture their learning in any format they like:  an essay, a Powerpoint presentation, a website, a video, a booklet, a  3-D artefact – whatever they like.  This leads to a lovely range of responses that can be shared in different ways.  There’s nothing worse than a class of Powerpoint to schlep through – but the open format method usually yields enough variety to make it possible to see everything.

Students can explore a range of creative ideas to communicate their learning, learning some technical media skills in the process.   Often I find that students need reassurance – Am I allowed to make a website?  Yes, of course!  You need to make sure the content is given due weight – it needs to be a rigorous piece of work.  It helps to show them last year’s stunning exemplars.

Give them permission to do whatever they like – but ask them to dazzle you.

Please add your own Silver Arrows in the comments below….

Thanks to @EducatingMiss for creating this infographic summarising this post:


Click to download.


A Guide To Scenes From The Battleground

I have updated this guide for the holidays.

This blog is about the state of secondary education. There is an introduction to it here:

  • Welcome (or welcome back) to the Battleground

And some reflections on it here:

  • Now We Are Seven
  • Now We Are Eight

Here is a summary of my main points:

  • A New Summing Up

Here are a few posts written purely for a laugh (although some of them perhaps make a point at the same time):

  • The Driving Lesson
  • The Cult of INSET
  • The Theory of Multiple Fitnesses
  • The Kennedy Assassination: A Headteacher’s Perspective
  • Blood and Guts
  • Rewriting the Dictionary
  • What if Senior Managers Told the Truth?
  • You Know it’s Time to Quit Teaching When…
  • Charlie and the Inclusive Chocolate Factory
  • Back To Work
  • Negative Correlations in Teaching
  • Sports News (written by a friend)
  • 10 Reasons Why I Shouldn’t Tidy my House
  • Progressive Teaching Methods In the Primary School
  • The Two Types of Guardian Journalism About Where to Send your Kids to School

The following posts sum up what is typical in schools these days in various respects:


  • The Top Five Lies About Behaviour
  • The Naughty Boy
  • The Disruptive Girl
  • How To Find Out If Your Teacher Is Gay
  • Getting “Terrored”
  • The F***-Off Factor
  • Excuses, Excuses: Part 1
  • Excuses, Excuses: Part 2
  • Excuses, Excuses: Part 3
  • Excuses, Excuses: Part 4
  • The Two Discipline Systems
  • “I Don’t Get It”
  • Zen and the Art of Going to the Lavatory
  • Ammunition
  • The Year 11 Tipping Point
  • The Good Kids
  • Obedience
  • Seven Signs of a “Good Enough” Discipline System


  • They Call It PSHE, I Call It Hell
  • Mixed Ability Teaching Doesn’t Exist
  • The Joy of Sets
  • Political Education Goes Down the Toilet
  • Values
  • English Language GCSE – Narrowing the Horizons of the Next Generation
  • Attitudes Which Cause Dumbing Down
  • Yes, Those Were Definitely Examples of Dumbing Down

Teachers and Managers:

  • The Appeasers
  • A Few More Words About Appeasement
  • Excuses, Excuses – This Time from the Grown Ups
  • Seven Habits of Highly Defective Headteachers
  • Heroes of SMT
  • The Illusionists
  • Good Year Heads
  • How Low Can Expectations Go?
  • The Job that Never Ends
  • How to be bad SMT

Special Needs:

  • Not-So Special Needs
  • Tourette’s, Turrets, Tourects
  • Total Eclipse of the SEN
  • Failing The Most Vulnerable

School Life:

  • Sports Day
  • Cover
  • 10 Things To Avoid in INSET


  • Unsolved Mysteries of Teaching
  • Ten Things to Know About the Kids
  • 10 Things You Never Hear In Teaching
  • And On the Plus Side
  • Pointing Out The Obvious
  • Twenty Lies
  • Obstructions
  • Have Sixth-Formers Changed?
  • Some Pedagogical Resources
  • More Pedagogical Resources

As well as the advice for teachers included in many of the other posts, I have written advice specifically for new teachers:

  • FAQs for NQTs
  • Is This Normal?
  • How to Destroy NQTs
  • Lies, Damned Lies and Things You are Told During Teacher Training
  • Some Quick Tips for NQTs and Trainees
  • Why Most Behaviour Management Advice Doesn’t Work

These deal more directly with my own personal experiences, or the experiences of others:

  • The Corridor of Death
  • The SIG Group
  • The Anonymous Questionnaire. Part 1
  • The Anonymous Questionnaire. Part 2
  • The Behaviour Management Database
  • More from the Behaviour Management Database
  • A Good Class
  • Non-Discipline Day
  • Five Incidents That Didn’t Result In A Permanent Exclusion
  • The Culture of Blame
  • The Most Ridiculous Complaints Against Me Ever Made
  • Being Supported by a Year Head
  • Meanwhile, Elsewhere in the Education System
  • The Core Business of Schools
  • I Have A Dream
  • Doctor What?
  • I Have a Bad Relationship with the Kids
  • Insane Teacher Bothers the Prime Minister
  • God
  • Shoot The Messenger
  • A Personality Clash
  • Charlene
  • Holiday In Hell: Part 1
  • Holiday In Hell: Part 2
  • Higher Education? (written by a friend)
  • Success
  • Selling Out
  • Students and Detentions
  • With a Little Help from my Friends
  • Eight Out Of Forty-Three Ain’t Bad (If You’re a Member of SMT)
  • The School’s on Fire
  • Snow Days
  • The Hostile Observation
  • What I Didn’t Say During the INSET day on Special Educational Needs
  • The Outstanding School
  • The Failing Department (written by a friend)
  • Further Education
  • Parallel Universes at the London Festival of Education
  • A Reader Comments on their NQT Year (written by a reader)
  • A Primary School Mutiny (written by a reader)
  • A Maths Teacher writes… (written by a reader)
  • Should We Care About Our Students?
  • What I did during my half-term holiday
  • The Darkest Term: Teacher Stress and Depression
  • School Governor Writes… (written by a reader)

I have also written a number of posts exploring and explaining how this situation came to be, discussing the arguments in education and suggesting what can be done.


  • Modern Education is Rubbish Part 1. Where Are We Now?
  • Modern Education is Rubbish Part 2. What Should We Be Trying To Do?
  • Modern Education is Rubbish Part 3. Why Are Our Schools Failing?
  • A Brief History of Education. Part 1. Educational Thought
  • A Brief History of Education Part 2. The 1944 Education Act
  • A Brief History of Education Part 3. The Rise of the Comprehensive
  • A Brief History of Education Part 4. The Assault on Professionalism
  • A Brief History of Education Part 5. The Battleground School
  • The Cast of Culprits Part 1. The Students
  • The Cast of Culprits Part 2. The Teachers
  • The Cast of Culprits Part 3. The School Leaders
  • The Cast Of Culprits: Part 4. The Bureaucrats
  • Was It Always Like This?
  • It’s Not Just Me


  • Why I Like Being a Teacher
  • Just For The Record, I Don’t Hate The Kids
  • Optimism
  • A Member of the Patriarchy Writes…
  • Why I Blog Anonymously
  • I felt a great disturbance in the internet yesterday
  • The State of the Education Debate
  • How the tide has turned…

Progressive Education:

  • If Only They Didn’t Have to Learn
  • The Devil’s Own Education System
  • Group-Work
  • Education as a Religion
  • Childish Things
  • Why Students Aren’t Given More of a Say in Education
  • How to Argue for Progressive Education
  • Play
  • A New Primary Teacher Writes… (written by a reader)
  • That Primary School Teacher Post


  • Bad Ideas for Dealing with the Behaviour Crisis
  • Bad Idea for Dealing with the Behaviour Crisis #1: Make Lessons More Fun
  • Bad Idea for Dealing with the Behaviour Crisis #2: Bring Back Selection
  • Bad Idea for Dealing with the Behaviour Crisis #3: End Compulsory Education
  • Bad Idea for Dealing with the Behaviour Crisis #4: Have More Vocational Subjects
  • Bad Idea for Dealing with the Behaviour Crisis #5: End Parental Choice
  • The First Law of Behaviour Management
  • The Second Law of Behaviour Management
  • The Third Law of Behaviour Management
  • The Fourth Law of Behaviour Management
  • “But They Have To Go Somewhere”
  • In Praise of Harshness
  • Detentions: Part 1
  • Detentions: Part 2
  • The Driving Lesson Revisited
  • The Denial Twist
  • The Three Main Debating Strategies of Behaviour Crisis Denialists
  • Shouting
  • A Solution to Poor Discipline in Challenging Schools
  • What Makes A School Discipline System Work?
  • The Behaviour Delusion (or “Why do Kids Kick Off?”)


  • Gag the Student Voice
  • Teach First, Repent at Leisure
  • Snake Oil (BLP)
  • A.P.P.
  • Surviving A.P.P.
  • Inclusion and the Special Needs Racket

Education Policy and Current Affairs:

  • Why Education Shouldn’t be Run by Bankers
  • Strike!
  • Scabs
  • Who Is To Blame?
  • Why Sir Alan Steer Should Stick his Stupid Lying Report up his Arse
  • Lessons Not Learned (Or Why Sir Alan Steer Should Still Stick his Report up his Arse)
  • We Are The People We’ve Been Waiting For
  • Parental Choice
  • Parental Choice Revisited
  • Three Opinions Best Ignored
  • Bye, Bye, Mr Balls
  • Snuffy
  • The Education White Paper
  • Let’s Twist Again…
  • These Riots Prove Whatever the Hell it was I was Already Saying
  • The Exam Scandal
  • The Education Spectrum
  • The Attitudes Which Cause the Behaviour Crisis
  • How Not to Criticise an Education Secretary
  • A Reply To Fiona Millar’s Latest Exercise in Denialism
  • Dumbing Down: The Tory Way
  • Why Is Nationwide Funding A Campaign Against The Teaching Of Basic Numeracy?
  • A Note About The GCSEs
  • Actually, It Was About Cheating
  • The Exam Hysteria Continues…
  • More About Exams
  • A Note on Exams
  • The GCSE English Farrago
  • I Told You So
  • What good should follow this, if this were done?
  • Why those of us on the left should support Michael Gove’s efforts to “clever-up” the curriculum
  • Policy Based Evidence Making
  • Last Week’s Verdict on the English GCSE Farrago
  • Some Final Words on the English GCSE Farrago
  • A Response to Ben Goldacre’s Building Evidence Into Education Report. Part 1
  • A Response to Ben Goldacre’s Building Evidence Into Education Report. Part 2
  • Well, this is disappointing
  • A Very Short Summary of the Phonics Debate
  • Is Phonics Being Implemented Correctly?
  • A Response about the Implementation of Phonics
  • Why I’m against Performance-Related Pay
  • Michael Gove’s Favourite Bloggers (or why my credibility is now shot)
  • Spot the Difference
  • A Petition Against Passing Off Blogposts as Petitions
  • Seven Things All Politicians Should Know About Education
  • Michael Gove’s Mr Men Speech
  • Is it even possible to discuss education policy any more?
  • Where did Michael Gove find that Mr Men Story?
  • Should Language Students Learn to Translate? (written by a reader)
  • A Further Thought on Language Teaching  (written by a reader)
  • A Few Points About the Teaching Unions
  • The History Teachers We Don’t Hear From (written by two readers)
  • Discussing the 7 Myths About Education
  • Kids are failed by The System, not their genes
  • The Case against Michael Gove
  • The Case against Stephen Twigg
  • The Latest Iteration of the Phonics Debate
  • A Few Comments on Last Week’s GCSE Results
  • Shocking News: Labour activist (and NUT member) criticises Michael Gove
  • It’s because I agree with Gove about the curriculum that I disagree with him about pay and conditions
  • Bye bye, Mr Twigg
  • No OFSTED Hope From Tristram Hunt
  • How To Sabotage Your Own Policy
  • Liz Truss’s Textbook Speech
  • Phonics Denialism and Rational Debate
  • Tristram Hunt proposes something which may just be worse than OFSTED
  • Spot The Difference: Part 2
  • How To Sabotage Your Own Policy Part 2
  • The International Language of Edu-Platitudes
  • Revisiting the Debate Over the Davis Phonics Pamphlet: Part 1
  • Revisiting the Debate Over the Davis Phonics Pamphlet: Part 2
  • Revisiting the Debate Over the Davis Phonics Pamphlet: Part 3
  • Towards a Blue Labour Agenda on Schools Part 1
  • Towards a Blue Labour Agenda on Schools Part 2
  • Goodbye, Mr Gove
  • Will everything really calm down after Gove?
  • Spot The Difference Part 3
  • Spot The Difference: The ATL and Behaviour.


  • OFSTED Must Die
  • What OFSTED Say They Want
  • What OFSTED Actually Want
  • Does Sir Michael Wilshaw Know What OFSTED Good Practice Looks Like?
  • OFSTED Best Practice Videos
  • Did OFSTED just remove those good practice videos?
  • OFSTED Under Fire
  • The Strange Case of OFSTED and School Governors (written by a guest)
  • Do OFSTED pay attention to their chief inspector or their handbook?
  • Can Sir Michael Wilshaw order OFSTED to change?
  • Just when you think OFSTED have got their act together, the flip cameras are back.
  • The OFSTED Teaching Style
  • The Government Should Listen to Teachers. And By “Teachers”, I Mean “Me”
  • More OFSTED Good Practice that isn’t
  • A Brief Comment on OFSTED and Teacher Talk
  • New OFSTED Handbook
  • The Open-Ended Hypocrisy of OFSTED
  • What I’d do about OFSTED
  • When will OFSTED change?
  • I’ll Accept No Excuses for OFSTED
  • New Academic Year. New Inspection Handbook. Same Old OFSTED
  • More OFSTED Nonsense
  • Why I don’t think OFSTED can be reformed
  • Has OFSTED Changed Since Last Month?
  • Some Progress with OFSTED (and how little difference it makes)
  • They’re Back – OFSTED Subject Specific Guidance Notes
  • A Christmas Miracle – OFSTED Get It Right For Once
  • Why That OFSTED News Is So Important
  • Have OFSTED Changed Yet?
  • Missing OFSTED Reports
  • How have OFSTED behaved in the last 2 weeks?
  • Bizarre Developments and Unfair Judgements on the OFSTED Website
  • Ten Questions OFSTED Need to Answer
  • More OFSTED Reports Edited After Publication
  • Two More Edited OFSTED Reports
  • Arnold Hill Academy Responds to the OFSTED Shambles
  • Can OFSTED stop publishing ridiculous reports, even if they try?
  • Last Week’s OFSTED Story in the Times
  • OFSTED Quotations About Independence
  • That Gove/Wilshaw Spat
  • OFSTED go mad In Coventry
  • An OFSTED Round Up
  • OFSTED Culture
  • Are OFSTED Judgements Reliable?
  • An Example of OFSTED’s Inconsistency
  • My Meeting With Sean Harford, OFSTED’s National Director for Schools Policy
  • First Impressions of the New OFSTED Handbook

Teaching and Teachers:

  • Lesson Observations
  • The Appeasers’ Creed
  • It
  • The Bisected Teacher
  • Wilful Stupidity
  • Hard Work
  • Never Forget: Learning Styles are Complete Arse
  • A Teacher’s Oath
  • The Insanity of Allowing Phones in Class
  • More about Phones
  • The Problem with AfL
  • Another Problem with AfL
  • Denying the Debate
  • Marking and Workload
  • Arguing over the Ridiculous: Brain Gym and Mantle of the Expert
  • Hands Up
  • A Question (and a Straw Man) About Lying to Children
  • Fluency in Mathematics: Part 1
  • Fluency in Mathematics: Part 2
  • Fluency in Mathematics: Part 3

Educational Ethics and Philosophy:

  • Professionalism
  • Ethics Man
  • Human Nature
  • Blamelessness
  • The Blameless. Part 1: The Young
  • The Blameless. Part 2: The Poor
  • The Blameless. Part 3: The Afflicted
  • Needs
  • Desert Part 1: Rewards
  • Desert Part 2: Punishment
  • Desert Part 3: The Purpose of Punishment
  • Corporal Punishment
  • Kindness and Justice
  • Self-Esteem: Part 1
  • Self-Esteem: Part 2
  • Health Versus Education
  • Why it is Annoying to Discuss Teaching Methods
  • Bad Ideas About the Aim of Education #1: Developing Character
  • Bad Ideas About the Aim of Education #2: Improving Emotional Well-Being
  • Bad Ideas About the Aim of Education #3: Fitting Children to their Future Role in Society
  • More about those Bad Ideas
  • The Aim of Education
  • Culture
  • The Porpoise of Education
  • Facts
  • Information and Understanding
  • Thinking Skills
  • Creativity
  • Autonomy
  • Inspiration
  • Skills or Knowledge?
  • Weasel Words #1: Engage
  • Weasel Words #2: Understand
  • Weasel Words #3: Skills
  • The Future Part 1: Another Argument for Dumbing-Down
  • The Future Part 2: Overseas Competition
  • The Future Part 3: Changes in the Labour Market
  • The Future Part 4: Technological Change as Normal and Unpredictable
  • The Future Part 5: Are We Living in a Time of Unprecedented Technological Change?
  • The Future Part 6: Does New Technology Mean We Don’t Need to Know Anything?
  • A Note About The Future
  • Hannah Arendt
  • Letter from a Professional Part 1: What is a Profession?
  • Letter from a Professional Part 2: What are professional ethics?
  • Letter from a Professional Part 3: Teaching and Professionalism
  • What’s Essential in the Education Debate Part 1: Truth
  • What’s Essential in the Education Debate Part 2: Reason
  • What’s Essential in the Education Debate Part 3: Refutation
  • Avoiding the Difficult Choices in Education
  • Has The Debate Moved On?

Education Research and Academics

  • Statistical Data and the Education Debate Part 1: Effect and Cause
  • Statistical Data and the Education Debate Part 2: Why we can reach conclusions from limited data
  • Statistical data and the Education Debate Part 3: Errors and Gold Standards
  • Criticising the Obviously Wrong
  • Drawing the Line Between Research and Propaganda

Here are some videos I found on the internet which I thought were interesting, or relevant, enough to present in a blog post:

  • Blame The Teacher – 1947 Style
  • Guaranteed to Offend Your SENCO
  • A Helpful Video On Learning Styles
  • Another Helpful Video
  • Brain Gym Exposed
  • Performance Related Pay?
  • Schools on Film
  • Is Teaching an Art or a Science? – Dan Willingham
  • Dylan Wiliam’s Lecture and “Sharing Good Practice”
  • We all know David Starkey was a terrible teacher… don’t we?
  • My Interview with the OFSTED Big Cheeses

I wrote about some of the myths that are spread to teachers, often in INSET or during PGCEs:

  • Three Myths For Teachers
  • More Myths for Teachers
  • Technology and Another Myth for Teachers

I have also outlined what I would expect from schools willing to do put things right:

  • My Dream School: Part 1
  • My Dream School: Part 2

Here are my book recommendations:

  • The Battleground Bookshelf
  • More from the Battleground Bookshelf
  • Progressively Worse – A Subversive Text

This may be of interest if you are considering writing a blog:

  • Advice For Education Bloggers
  • Quick Tips for New Education Bloggers

You may also have found me…

  • in the New Statesman blog
  • on the Labour Teachers website (The Education Spectrum)
  • on the Labour Teachers website again (How Not To Criticise an Education Secretary)
  • on the Labour Teachers website yet again (Reflections on the Festival of Education) 
  • On the Fabian Society website
  • On the Fabian Society website again
  • mentioned in some print media
  • On the NUT website
  • On Radio 4’s The Report
  • On Radio 4’s One to One
  • In Academies Week (Teachers need the time to get out more)
  • In Academies Week (Top Blogs of the Week)

I have also written sections in the following two books:

  • Progressively worse: The Burden of Bad Ideas in British Schools
  • Don’t change the light bulbs: A compendium of expertise from the UK s most switched-on educators

Please let me know if any of the links don’t work.

Finally, I can be found on Facebook (please “friend” me) or Twitter (please “follow” me).

If you want to keep up with education blogging other than mine, or to see some of these same concerns discussed by others, then you should follow my sister blog, The Education Echo Chamber. The blog is here. The twitter feed is here.

Scenes From The Battleground

Now We Are Eight


Today marks 8 years since my blogging career began. A year ago I attempted to sum up the first seven years of blogging, but it feels a lot like there is more to report back on from the last year alone than from those 7 years. For a start, the total number of hits on this blog went over a million recently. As the blog used to appear in a couple of other places which wouldn’t be included in the total, the actual millionth hit could have been much earlier but was probably still this year.

There were two remarkably popular posts this year. The first, A Christmas Miracle – OFSTED Get It Right For Once, was simply an update on changes in the OFSTED handbook during the Christmas holidays and seemed to be popular mainly because it was the first place people heard the news. But it was also widely suggested that the changes reflected some of the constant campaigning over OFSTED that had been part of this blog for the previous 10 months. The other blogpost, one that still seems to get around 100 hits a day even now, was The Darkest Term: Teacher Stress and Depression which was a series of anonymous accounts of teachers’ experiences of stress and depression. Sobering reading, although I know some of those who contributed are much happier now. Its popularity says a lot about the profession.

This is the year that Michael Gove ceased to be education secretary. My comments at the time can be found here. He was a regular reader of this blog, and mentioned it in a number of speeches. Although constantly attacked for not understanding what schools or teaching were like, he had been in charge of his party’s education policy for 7 years and had built up a knowledge of the system, and the debates in education, that no other politician can come close to. He’d also made education one of the most important cabinet posts. It’s a shame to see it sink back into obscurity and for the debate to be once more dominated by those who don’t actually seem to realise what’s at issue. I mean, teacher’s oaths? Really?

This is also the year that I went public. As a result of others trying to expose me in an apparent effort to shut me up (how’d that work out for you?) and the fact that I had left my permanent job to go part-time, I decided to end my seven year run of being anonymous and made a number of public appearances. I’ve gone from being absolutely terrified of public speaking in a room of about 30, to really rather enjoying it and daring to appear before one audience that was in the hundreds. I’m particularly fond of discussions as I can get stuck into the debate and don’t have to spend hours preparing. I also like events where there are biscuits.

I’ve appeared in print (as opposed to only online) for the first time this year. Firstly, I wrote the foreword to Robert Peal’s Progressively worse: The Burden of Bad Ideas in British Schools. Then, I contributed a chapter to Rachel Jones’s Don’t change the light bulbs: A compendium of expertise from the UK s most switched-on educators (it’s for charity, buy it!).  More recently I’ve written for Academies Week, firstly about my hobby of going to education events and secondly, contributing a round up of the best education blogs of the week.

I’ve met a number of people who are big in either education or policy for the first time this year, like: Doug Lemov, James O’Shaughnessy and Maurice Glasman (none of whom actually knew who I was at the time), Liz Truss (when still education minister), David Goodhart, Jonathan Simons, Mike Cladingbowl and Sean Harford. I also met television’s Vic Goddard and Oliver from Tough Young Teachers, and came within in a heartbeat of talking to Johnny Ball. I’ve also met and socialised with various education bloggers and tweeters, particularly by organising curries, and I have been doing my bit to try to help good new bloggers find an audience, particularly through The Echo Chamber.

And probably the most exciting experiences were my two contributions to Radio 4 programmes. Firstly, I shared my opinions in an episode of The Report about OFSTED and, more surreally, I was interviewed in my front room by Reeta Chakrabarti for One to One. Fortunately the programme makers edited me into some form of coherence.

No doubt, once I’ve posted this, I’ll think of some even more exciting blog-related activities from this year and add them in the comments. But it’s been an exciting year to be a blogger and a real change from the early years of blogging which mainly consisted of people telling me I should shut up because only bad teachers think there is anything wrong with the education system or progressive teaching. Here’s to the next 8 years.

Scenes From The Battleground

This much I know about…improving both my teaching and my students’ learning

I have been a teacher for 26 years, a Headteacher for 11 years and, at the age of 50, this much I know about improving both my teaching and my students’ learning.

Real student learning isn’t anything very exciting to watch; so said one of my most experienced colleagues recently during her Performance Management review. And after (re-)reading books by Willingham, Nuthall, Berger and Brown, Roediger & McDaniel over the summer I reckon she’s about right.

Coherent school improvement stems from the accurate interpretation of your students’ performance. A forensic analysis of our students’ results using all the intelligence available (and with the examination boards’ on-line post-results services, combined with our understanding of the combinations of flesh and blood that produced those results, and copious amounts of our own wisdom and judgement, we have all we need) is a great source of evidence for understanding how we need to modify our teaching to improve our students’ performance.

Model the process of interpreting your students’ results for colleagues. Combining my analysis of my students’ AS Economics summer examination results with my summer reading led me to present the following slides to colleagues on the first day of term:

View this document on Scribd


Six weeks of deliberate practice later…there is genuine learning going on! We’ve been really working hard on learning the deeper AS Economics theory thoroughly and then applying the theory to different surface case studies. We’ve looked in detail at examination question command words as seen in the Powerpoint which accompanies the video. Once you’ve watched the video, I’ll explain how I know that learning was taking place during this seemingly mundane lesson. Stay with it; it’s a longer clip than I like to show but it illustrates all of my summer time reading influences. And I still have a cold…

View this document on Scribd



Seven eights are fifty-six!? Short-hand codes are useful to help students learn. A la Willingham, if my AS Economics students are going to apply deep knowledge they need to possess that knowledge with un-thinking certainty. I’ve created a short-hand for my students for the Economics theory they should know without having to think about it: I call it, seven eights are fifty-six. I know my times-tables without thinking and my students need to know the Economics theory in the same way. Then, when they come to apply that theory to a new surface case study in their examinations, all they have to think about is the application, rather than using their energy trying to remember the theory. (Showing off my memory skills, I also bore them with the opening speech to Antony and Cleopatra which I learnt 31 years ago and remember like it was yesterday. Nay, but this dotage of our general’s…)

We come to know whether learning is going on inside our students’ heads by the work they produce. To secure their learning the students designed this paper from the Chinese Underwater Wedding Photography Case Study I took from the BBC Business website. Berger-like they worked on the wording of the questions until they were authentically examinationesque:


View this document on Scribd

Working on marginal elements of your teaching requires fully conscious effort. Doug Lemov cites Joshua Foer from the latter’s study of memory, Moonwalking with Einstein: The secret to improving at a skill is to retain some degree of conscious control over it while practising…to force oneself to stay out of autopilot. Lemov goes on to say, The process of intentionally implementing feedback is likely to keep people in a practice state of increased consciousness and thus steeper improvement.

I wrote this recently about whether research evidence can even change practice: Even if we find a way of parcelling up research in a form which the individual classroom teacher will read, the next challenge is for him to change his classroom practice. If, extraordinarily, a teacher reads research which prompts him to deliberately alter his teaching, the final challenge – and possibly the most important – is for him to measure the impact of this pedagogic change on his students’ outcomes. And what if the data says it hasn’t worked?! The Willingham/Nuthall/Berger/Brown et al evidence-based pedagogic advice, coupled with my experience, has given me some wisdom about how to improve; I’ve never worked so deliberately nor so hard on my teaching. The students have attempted questions from five different examination papers in the first six weeks, something I would never have planned before my summer reading; their performance data is getting better and their confidence has grown steadily. Next week they’ll sit a previously unseen paper under examination conditions to assess synoptically their first half-term’s progress and all the evidence suggests they’re ready for it! Importantly, if their performance is no better than my last year’s students’ performance, it’ll be time to think again.

P.S. I’m not sure George Osborne would survive long in my Economics class…




Willingham-Berger-Nuthall-Brown et al


Authentic Assessment and Progress. Keeping it Real.

Screen shot 2014-10-19 at 08.59.16

There are many progress paths. The bell curve helps to define standards at any given point but does not fix the path that follows.

This post is based on the ideas that I outlined during my workshop at #TLT14 in Southampton.  It forms part of the process of rethinking assessment at KS3 now that levels have gone.  This is a live discussion at my school and is very much a work in progress.

A good starting point is to revisit the many very good reasons for moving away from levels.  A recent TES post by Tim Oates explains this very well:

Screen shot 2014-10-19 at 09.05.58

I’ve explored a lot of these ideas in previous posts:

  • The Assessment Uncertainty Principle
  • Great Lessons 5: Journeys
  • Assessment, Standards and The Bell-Curve.

In replacing levels, we should be seeking to implement a system that tackles some of the problems levels created.  Here is a re-cap of some of the problems that I see:

  • Levels create the impression that learning follows a linear progress path in equal-sized steps.  This an illusion – though widely held as true and enshrined in the levels-of-progress concept.
  • Levels suggest precise parallel standards between subject areas within a school  – 5a in History is as good as a 5a in Science – even though almost no work is done in schools to measure this, beyond checking distributions on a bell-curve model.
  • In reality, levels and sub-levels have become general bell-curve indicators for a cohort not statements of absolute attainment – so the detail of what has been learned and understood is largely absent from the discourse between teachers and with parents.
  • The moderation needed to ensure that a 5a in English in School X in Birmingham means the same as a 5a in School Y in Exeter doesn’t happen.  Again, it is largely an illusion that this level of national standardisation is meaningful.
  • It requires precious time and effort to explain how a piece of work can be assessed on a level scale; meaning and detail are lost in the process.  Similarly, it takes precious time and effort to explain how the next level might manifest itself in a real piece of work; more detail and meaning are lost.  Using levels does not help to explain the next steps in a child’s learning in most situations; it’s far more effective to explain the steps in the context of the work itself.
  • Very often, the demand to show progress through incremental steps through the levels forces teachers to make arbitrary decisions and to concoct perverse attainment statements that do not fit the organic nature of their discipline.

A possible solution:   Authentic assessment and progress reporting

What is authentic assessment?

In practice, there are just a few different ways to measure performance from which teachers can make deductions about learning:

  • Tests. Right and wrong answers or extended answers evaluated for quality. This generates an aggregated score.
  • Qualitative evaluation of a product against some criteria – a piece of writing, a painting, a piece of design, a performance. These can generate a wide range of outcomes: marks, scores, broad overall grades or levels. Teachers’ professional judgement is critical.
  • Absolute benchmarks: A straight-forward assessment that a student can do something – or can’t do it yet. I’d suggest that there is a very limited set of learning goals that are simple enough to be reduced to can do/can’t do assessment; in most cases there is a proficiency scale of some kind.

Across the range of disciplines at KS3, different situations in different subjects lend themselves to being assessed using a particular combination of these measures. There is usually an authentic, natural, common-sense mode of assessment that teachers choose with an outcome that fits the intrinsic characteristics of the discipline. My suggestion is that we simply report how students have performed in these assessments, with data in the rawest possible state, without trying to morph the outcomes into a code where the meaning is lost.

Let’s explore an example:

In science, students learn about balancing chemical equations in Year 9. They take a test with several questions of increasing difficulty.  Each question is assigned marks based on the number of elements that can be right or wrong. Some or all could be multiple choice questions.  The marking generates a score which indicates the level of a student’s performance.  It could be expressed in raw terms – say a mark out of 30, but a percentage would also to help make comparisons with other tests.

If consistent tests are used over time, the range of marks for any cohort will tell teachers about the performance of each student in the context of that specific topic.  Over time, a series of tests allows teachers to build up a profile of a student’s learning and progress.  Some tests might be harder than others but teachers can see this from the pattern of performance of the whole cohort.   The more tightly focused each test is on a specific set of concepts, the more precise the information will be about any student’s learning.

Teachers would know that a score of, say 70%, is an exceptional score for student with a low starting point, representing excellent progress.  For a High Starter ( to borrow from John Tomsett), 70% might represent progress below the expected level.  For both students, the feedback can focus on the details of balancing equations and the wrong answers. This is miles away from the nebulousness of a 6c.   At the end of each term or year, the cumulative data from tests would represent a strong basis for a discussion with students and parents and for making an overall statement about attainment and progress in a report.

This will work if the tests are well designed to sample the curriculum and to span the range of likely performance levels.  It’s no good if lots of students gain full marks in every test because that would suggest that their is a ceiling on their potential attainment in that area of the curriculum.  The details of all the tests could be shared with parents and students (perhaps online) so that it is clear and transparent. Eg High Starters should be aiming to achieve at least 80% on the unit tests and in the practical assessment. The tests cover the topic with questions like these…..

There is a case for exemplifying standards more explicitly with samples of writing. Not all of science is made up of right and wrong answers; there is always the question of depth:

A:   When someone is running they need to pump more oxygen to their muscles and take the carbon dioxide to the lungs so their heart has to beat faster.

B:  During exercise, energy is released from respiration in muscle cells as they contract repeatedly.  The heart rate increases in order to regulate the supply of oxygen to the cells and the rate at which the waste product carbon dioxide can be expelled via diffusion from the blood into the air via alveoli in the lungs… Etc.

Without the obfuscation of a level ladder, it is possible to illustrate different levels of depth in an extended answer.  This may link to the number of marks given in an assessment and could be used as an exemplar for parents and students.  It is expected that Middle Starters making excellent progress will be writing answers like Example B by the end of Year 9. 

I could make up a similar  example for maths.  There is likely to be a series of topic-specific  tests and, in conjunction with some exemplars of the increasing level of challenge of content areas through the curriculum, this would give all the information needed.  In History and Geography, each unit could have specific outcomes described with success criteria for a synoptic assessment allowing progress to be measured relative to a starting point. Exemplars for written work could be produced and the students’ books would serve as an organic record of progress for all to see.  In Art or DT, success criteria could be used referenced to some exemplar work for students to benchmark their work against.  Grading or levelling might work here at the impressionistic level that NC Levels were originally designed – not the basket-case of sub-levelling that we ended up with.

It might be too confusing for parents to engage with 10 very different modes of assessment across the curriculum.  (One reason levels are held onto by some is because of the illusion of simplicity – an opiate for the masses that masks the underlying house of cards). At KEGS, we devised a generic *, 1,2,3 system that was explained in detail for each subject with specific attainment criteria defined and shared with students and parents.  At Highbury Grove I think a similar system could work but we’d need to add in another dimension to account for the broader range of starting points.  The principle would  be the same: students with starting point X, should  be aiming to reach standard Y by the end of the year, with the standards defined and exemplified by subject.  We haven’t started work on this yet but it is the direction of travel.

Progress will be relatively easy to report, focusing on attainment relative to the starting point and the progress of the cohort.   We’re going to use the simple four-stage code: Excelling, Good Progress, Some Concerns, Poor Progress.

A parent at KS3 could be told that, in Science, a Middle Starter child’s progress level is S (Some Concerns) because the assessments (eg a test average of 48%) indicate that progress isn’t yet in line with that expected for a student starting at that point.  A similar assessment for a Low Starter might warrant a progress level G (Good Progress) and for a High Starter in would be P (Poor).  The combination of progress and attainment is critical to understanding the full picture but the progress measure is the most important.

If I was told my son was Excelling – I wouldn’t necessarily need to know precisely how – I’d trust the teachers to know what they are doing.  However, if I needed more information, I’d expect the teacher to say “your son is Excelling, because for his age and starting point, his score of  82% in the science assessment represents excellent progress”.  In History, it might be a question of showing me my son’s books or an essay at parent’s evening so I could see the progress (or lack of it) with my own eyes. During lessons I’d expect my son to be informed of his areas for development in some depth; he should know which 18% he got wrong and why.   Similarly, he should know where his writing in English needs improvement based on an authentic assessment that suits the process of assessing English.  Levels? Marks out of 20? Approximate GCSE Grade? Whatever is the most natural and retains the most detail.

(See: Formative use of summative tests.)

Standards and Moderation

An important reinforcement to this approach will be the routine moderation of work between teachers within departments and between schools.  If there was a national database of tests and samples of work that exemplified standards for children of different ages then schools could  cross-reference their own standards easily.  In the short term this needs to happen though school-to-school collaboration.  Teachers in next-door classrooms ought to have a shared understanding of what ‘exceptional work’ might look like for their parallel Year 8 classes.  Moderation should create upward pressure; if one school is getting much better work out of the Year 8s who came in with Level 6 in English, then it would lead to a review of standards.  Currently, because everyone’s version of a level varies, that discussion is often reduced to an exchange of mutual suspicion about the validity other people’s assessments.  If we ‘keep it real’, that won’t happen.  It will just fuel an upward spiral of challenge.  That’s the theory in any case.  Let’s see!

As I said, this is a work in progress… and, as ever, I’m more or less thinking aloud.


Negative framing and No Pens Days

The framing effect is an example of cognitive bias, in which our reaction choices depends on whether it they are presented as a loss or a gain. Our tendency is to avoid risks when they’re framed negatively is presented but embrace risks when a positive frame is presented.  Cognitive psychologists, Tversky & Kahneman explored how linguistic framing affects our responses to choices in hypothetical life and death situations. They asked participants to choose between two treatments for 600 people affected by a deadly disease. Treatment A was predicted to result in 400 deaths, whereas treatment B had a 33% chance that no one would die but a 66% chance that everyone would die. This choice was then presented to participants either with positive framing, i.e. how many people would live, or with negative framing, i.e. how many people would die. The results probably won’t come as much of a surprise. Treatment A was chosen by 72% of participants when it was presented with positive framing (“saves 200 lives”) dropping to only 22% when the same choice was presented with negative framing (“400 people will die”.)

This effect has been shown in other contexts:

  • 93% of PhD students registered early when a penalty fee for late registration was emphasised, with only 67% doing so when this was presented as a discount for earlier registration.
  • 62% of people disagreed with allowing “public condemnation of democracy”, but only 46% of people agreed that it was right to “forbid public condemnation of democracy”.
  • More people will support an economic policy if the employment rate is emphasised than when the associated unemployment rates is highlighted.

The implication is clear: framing statements negatively has a power effect on our perception. Which brings up to No Pens Day. For those of you who don’t know yesterday was No pens Wednesday. The Communications Trust are responsible for this initiative in which schools are encouraged to instruct pupils to ‘put down their pens’ and ‘pick up their language’. Guess what? The kids absolutely love it!

“The buzz around the school is palpable. The children genuinely look forward to a day in which they know that writing is banned and clues are scattered throughout the school, however we have found that the day has often resulted in the most fabulous writing in the following week as the children have gained so much from their day.”

“I work with young people who have difficulties with their behaviour. No Pens Wednesday showed how putting speaking and listening at the heart of the school improved relationships and engagement for our young people.”

“As a SENCO, so much of my work is aorund [sic] enabling the children to say something, because until they can say something – they can’t write it. If a child can only speak in one or two word answers, they can’t write a sentence” 

“We all, staff and children, thoroughly enjoyed it and will be doing it again next year.”

“No Pens Day Wednesday gives children the opportunity to take time to think about and communicate their ideas rather than rushing to pick up their pencils to start writing”

“A really wonderful day in school which I feel is just the start of embedding speaking and listening throughout the curriculum. Thank you for making it possible!”

And here’s what Professor Mick Waters has to say on the matter:

Now I’m sympathetic to some of these aims, but Waters expresses my reservations clearly: writing is boring and a lot less fun than talking or screwing up tissue paper. “We could make life so exciting without a pen.” The assumption is that if you’re unfortunate enough to have a pen, life is dull. All the benefits of oral communication can’t be achieved with pens. But that’s just wrong. The opportunity to write things down can enhance discussion and aid creativity. Imagine a meeting in which you weren’t allowed to make notes or jot down thoughts. Is that really ‘preparing children for adult life’?

The SENCO quoted above has experienced a problem I’ve written about at length in my book The Secret of Literacy: “until they can say something – they can’t write it”. I have a simple theory about writing: Talk is an incredibly powerful lever for cognitive change. Once you can say something it change how you are able to think. And once you thinking changes, improving writing becomes almost incidental. If we want children to be academically successful, he solution is to make them speak the language of academic success. But none of this should be seen as anathema to the process of using pens or writing. “Picking up our language” need not (maybe cannot) come at the expense of “putting down our pens”.

Waters’ point about children being made to produce reams of writing is fair. Children write an enormous amount in school. But most often we don’t value what they write and so we actively teaching them that writing is unimportant. We’re hardly likely to tackle this incredibly damaging lesson by telling them that No Pens Day is all about “improving relationships and engagement” and that to achieve these aims “writing is banned”.

But that’s not to say I’m against speaking and listening or think that writing is the only route to worthwhile learning. Far from it. To my mind discussion and debate are at the very heart of what we should be doing in schools. I’m not against the principle of No Pens Days so much as the way it’s been branded. (And the irony that The Communication Trust has miscommunicated this message should not escape us.) Why not rebrand as Debate Day or Speech Wednesdays? I doubt very much whether The Communication Trust or Mick Waters is actively against writing. Probably what they want is for teachers and children to place an increased value on speaking and listening. So why not define our aims by what we want to achieve rather than what we might be opposed to?


The post Negative framing and No Pens Days appeared first on David Didau: The Learning Spy.

David Didau: The Learning Spy

This much I know about…what Year 7 pupils’ parents really worry about (and why your keepy-uppy skills really matter!)

I have been a teacher for 25 years, a Headteacher for 10 years and, at the age of 49, this much I know about what Year 7 pupils’ parents really worry about (and why your keepy-uppy skills really matter!).

I am convinced that the best pastoral care for students from socio-economically deprived backgrounds is a good set of examination results. I thought I’d state that clearly at the outset just in case I get attacked for being blobby and soft and someone seriously suggests that I should be sacked for writing what follows.

You can only be as happy as your unhappiest child. This ubiquitous mantra may have become a cliché, but if you do have children you will know it possesses more than a grain of truth. We worry about our children’s happiness endlessly.

When my sons went to secondary school above everything else I just wanted them to have a few good friends. I believed that academic success would only follow once they were emotionally secure at school. Don’t get me wrong – my sons’ academic success matters hugely to me, but only in the context that academic success will give them greater choice in life and so, perhaps, greater chance of being happy.

When reshaping the curriculum in these times of tumultuous change, you must begin with the type of education you want for your students. Next year all our Year 10s will be taught our new Happiness course for one hour a week. It has been conceived by our Religion, Philosophy and Ethics teacher Robin Parmiter, one half of @DiscoMisterUK, and was developed last autumn when Robin enjoyed a two-days a week sabbatical at the Farmington Institute. Students will learn about how some of the world’s greatest thinkers – including my favourites, The Stoics – have wrestled with the concept of happiness. They will then reflect upon what they want from life in order to be happy in preparation for the most important examinations of their lives.

Our school’s core purpose is to inspire confident leaners who will thrive in a changing world. I received this email on Friday which confirmed two things for me: firstly, that we are getting ever closer to fulfilling our core purpose and secondly that students feeling safe and happy is the bedrock of an academically successful school.

From: Peter Smith’s mum*

Sent: 18 July 2014 11:20

To: Mail

Subject: END OF YEAR

Dear Mr Tomsett

My son, Peter Smith will today finish his first year at Huntington School.

I am a very anxious mother, Peter being my oldest boy of three.

I imagined he would miss the bus, he would forget his sports kit, he would not know his way round the school.

None of these things happened – quite the opposite.

I am extremely proud of his first year with you, his progression in his education, his aptitude for taking on new subjects and ideas, his enthusiasm in areas I never imagined.

I feel content and enthused every day he comes to school, knowing he is safe, he is happy and he is growing into a (rather hormonal) confident young man.

As parents, we are quick to pick up on faults – I feel it is important to also share thanks.

So thank you Mr Tomsett, thank your staff and how jealous I am that you can do so many keepy uppies in your work shoes…… Peter has a whole new level of respect for you. (I coach football and can only manage 11 keepy uppies)**

Enjoy the summer.

Mrs Smith

*Names have been changed

**When I was on lunch duty the other day, a student’s football broke to me and, unable to resist the ever-present inner-child, I did a few faultless keepy-ups and thumped the ball left-footed forcing a great save from the keeper.



Headteacher’s Report. Six Weeks In.

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Through struggle to the stars.

I love the Highbury Grove School motto:  Per Ardua Ad Astra.   Through struggle to the stars.  It captures the spirit of the school’s journey and spirit of the staff.  It’s the message we’re giving to our students too:  Work Hard; Aim High – or better still, Work Extremely Hard; Aim Extremely High. Why? Because the stars are worth reaching – with all the joy, wonder and personal fulfilment that learning and achievement bring.

Six weeks in, I can safely say that I love my new job.  I really do. Every morning I zip into work on my bike relishing the challenges that lie ahead.   It’s been a bit of a whirlwind, finding out who everyone is, getting a feel for the dynamics of the different populations – students, staff, parents and governors – and trying to move forward with some confidence and clarity.   It feels like we’re on a mission and the commitment from everyone associated with the school is magnificent.  I couldn’t ask for better conditions or better people to deliver the ambitious goals we’ve got for the school and that is pretty exciting.

I’ll write about my experience in the classroom in due course – that has been an education.  Well, more like a re-education; wonderful and challenging in equal measure.   For now, to give a flavour of the journey so far, here is an edited version of my Headteacher’s report to Governors. It illustrates the range of issues I’ve been dealing with.  This is Headship.

Headteacher’s Report to Governors. October 2014

  1. Introduction
  • A priority issue has been to complete a draft of the School Development and Improvement Plan. The style is deliberately evaluative rather than absolute.

I’ve inserted some extracts in the relevant places below to give you a flavour : (The Development Plan numbering is different to the report – in case you find that confusing!)

  1. Staffing, HR and Professional Development
  •  I am exploring a new recruitment and retention strategy based on creating optimum working conditions, clear progression pathways for all staff and comprehensive, tailored professional development.
  • I’ve undertaken a first-wave review of SLT roles and responsibilities leading to some changes.
  • I have identified some gaps on the TLR structure for providing appropriate career progression for teaching staff.
  • The Appraisal system in the school needs to be reviewed during the year so that we can adopt an approach that is far more orientated towards career development rather than accountability and target setting. Crucially, this needs to apply to all staff in every role equally.  We’re introducing the BlueSky software to make this work efficiently.
  • We’ll be undertaking a review of contracts, additional payments and loadings to eliminate anomalies and give greater clarity for all staff.
  • We’ve already made progress in implementing a CPD structure that can support staff at different levels. We will soon be joining the National Teacher Enquiry Network and will use their framework as a tool for planning future CPD. In May we will be holding a Teaching and Learning Conference on our INSET day where all staff will share their learning during the year.
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  1. Community and Partnerships
  • The Parents’ Consultation event in September was a great success with 160 parents in attendance representing a good cross-section of the community.  (This is as wonderful event – a great buzz with lots of excellent ideas coming forward). A report based on their views of the school will be published soon.
  • Our Open Evening was very well attended and the immediate feedback was very positive.  There’s a strong sense in which people in the local community are determined to support their local school.
  • I’ve undertaken several Primary School visits to talk to the Heads about transition and partnership: In November we will be hosting a meeting of Heads of our feeder schools and Transition Forum meetings for Maths and English.
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  • I have attended my first meetings with other Islington Secondary Heads and partners.
  1. Curriculum, Teaching and Learning, Achievement
  • The Examination Review has been concluded for Y11 and Sixth Form outcomes.
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  • During this term we will commence our Review process. We’ve decided to focus on Key Stages rather than Year Groups, starting with Key Stage 4. This will include lesson observations and work sampling.  (In the New Dawn of grade-free lesson observations, we’re determined to foster a strongly supportive, developmental spirit behind these reviews – exciting times.)
  • In addition, I am beginning the process of observing every teacher myself, focusing on one faculty at a time, with 5 or 6 observations each week. My lesson observations are intended to be informal and exploratory; each teacher will see me for feedback as part of the process of allowing me to understand each teacher’s perspectives, strengths and areas for professional development. (Probably the best bit of the job so far… I love doing this.)
  • We’ve established a Curriculum Working Party that has had one initial meeting so far. We will be looking at models for every aspect of the curriculum, hoping to present options for consultation and decisions in the Spring Term.
  • We’ve had some initial discussions at SLT with a view to using this year to devise a new assessment and reporting system.
  • Homework has been a prominent issue this term. We’ve succeeded in giving it a very high profile already.
  1. Pastoral Issues, Behaviour and Student Support
  • The top priority of addressing behaviour has led to a launch of our Behaviour for Learning strategy with two very productive half-day closures. The opportunity for all staff to work in integrated groups was received extremely well by everyone.
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  • We have introduced a two-week cycle rotating House and Year Group Assemblies. I am currently leading most of the House Assemblies, which gives me an opportunity to deliver coherent ethos-reinforcing messages to all students.
  • We have re-started the student breakfast service from 8am every day;
  • The English department, Learning Support Team and Library are  to making a big push on our Accelerated Reader scheme
  • We’ll be conducting a review of intervention, learning support and reading development,using data tracking to work out which strategies have the greatest impact.
  • Acquainting myself with the school’s exclusions processes has been necessary already this term. (I’m so impressed with the Behaviour Team at HGS and all the Heads of Year – a non-teaching role that works very well.)
  1. Sixth Form Developments.
  • We have held the first meeting of a Sixth Form Working Party. This group of staff will run some student focus groups to find out what they’d like to see in the Highbury Grove Sixth Form. I have outlined the idea of an HGS Baccalaureate.
  • We’ll be hosting a National Baccalaureate Summit at HGS in November, gathering various people with an interest in this area.
  1. Buildings, Systems and Finance.
  • I’ve had initial meetings with all the key people involved in our PFI and Facilities Management contracts.
  • Enhancing communication systems has been an early priority introducing universal parent email, insisting that every family has an email address.
  • We need a long-term rolling plan for IT replacement, upgrades and developing wireless access so that we make the necessary capital investment year on year.  That process has now started.
  • I have had productive meetings with the Business Manager to explore our budget profile, some forecasting and the projected surplus.  It’s important to know where the pressure points and opportunities lie.

Thanks to everyone who has made these early weeks such a joy.   In particular, I’m grateful to all the students who have welcomed me and taken time to share their ideas.  I’ve run several small meetings with key opinion-forming groups of students who have told me what they love and what they’d like to change about the school.  I’ve had students asking to rent a theatre for our school production with a fully costed proposal; a student asking to run an anti-poverty campaign linked to our  music programme; students asking to set up a new magazine.  Every day different students stop for a chat in the corridor in the most lovely engaging way.  Thank you all.


Fluency in Mathematics: Part 3

I gave a talk in March at Pedagoo London (my first public appearance) and again the weekend before last at the La Salle Education maths conference on fluency in mathematics. This post is based on those talks and so, inevitably it has taken several posts and revisits some old ground. Parts 1 and 2 are here and here.

Finally we come to my advice for teaching for fluency. Firstly, something I started doing this year, is starting all learning objectives with “know” or “practise”. I find this covers everything that’s worth teaching and establishes what you are trying to achieve. But the big challenge is over resources. Here are my recommendations.

1)  math-drills.com This is an American website (note the lack of an “s” in “math”). However, it has a wide range of free worksheets that emphasise practice. It’s particularly good for number bonds and times tables.

2) Ten Ticks. Probably already known to every maths teacher reading and very common in schools. But there is often a sniffy attitude that Ten Ticks sheets have too many questions on. I beg to differ. If you are using them sensibly (don’t just read off the levels) then they provide the right amount of practice, and usually the right level of increasing difficulty.

3) Mymaths. Again I’m recommending something that is already widespread. However, what I want to point out, to those who already have access, are the many “Beat the Clock” activities. These are absolutely ideal for developing fluency.


Beat the Clock game on Mymaths

4) Make your own worksheets on Excel. If you need students to repeat very similar work then you can create worksheets in Excel which can then be significantly altered by changing only a few cells. So, for instance, by making the answers random numbers it is possible to generate similar but different equation questions repeatedly.



An Excel Spreadsheet. The answers are randomly generated and can be easily changed to generate different versions of the same worksheet (below).


5) Old Textbooks. The fashion for letting students look things up themselves and the hostility to practice has seen textbooks expand their explanatory material and decrease the number of questions. Most of the high achieving maths departments I’ve worked in, or visited, have had textbooks from ten or more years earlier.


A page from a textbook published in 1919


A page from a textbook published in 2008. Those 2 questions are the only ones covering those topics.

The most important principle is not having to hide that you are doing any of these things. Teachers should be allowed to get kids to practise.

If you have any other resources that are good for developing fluency, please suggest them in the comments. Two things that came up in the questions after the talks are Times Table Rock Stars and mental mathematics practice. The latter is one I use a lot, particularly where it is possible for students to hold up answers.

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Okay, this isn’t me giving my talk at the maths conference, but if you look closely, it is me sat behind Johnny Ball. Really.

Scenes From The Battleground

Employment figures for 2014 in the UK

Employment is the most basic requirement for the development and growth of an economy and United Kingdom is not an exception in this regard. From the past few decades, the world economy is in the grip of unemployment and even the economically developed country like UK had to face the brunt of this situation. However with the arrival of the year 2014, there seems to be a lot of improvement in the employment situation of UK. In the recent report drawn by the Statistical Authority, it was found that the unemployment rate in UK has reached its all time low of 7.1%. It is pertinent to know that this rate was 7.4% in the last three months of 2013 and economists around the world had anticipated for a decline of merely 0.1% which is very low as compared to the current reports.

According to office of National Statistics(ONS), there is a fall of 167000 people who’ve been affected by unemployment in the current year. Now there are just 2.32 million people in UK that are devoid of employment. The decrease in unemployment rates in the present year even indicate that now maximum number of people in the UK are having work and are capable of supporting their families. This value even indicates the biggest ever quarterly increase in the employment levels of UK. Despite of all the predications made by labor markets around the world, today Britain is experiencing an economic revolution that certainly needs more fuelling from the government.

This rate of unemployment at 7.1% is the best so far, ever since the economy of UK has started recovering from economic depression. According to ONS, following statistics relating to employment in UK in the year 2014 have been generated so far:

  • The rate of unemployment among the active population in UK is around 7.1% in January, 2014.
  • The total number of people that have a job and are actually working comprise of the 30.15 million of the total population.
  • UK government grants certain allowances to the unemployed population and it is astonishing to know that the number of people claiming Jobseeker’s allowance in January 2014 fell by 27600 people. So now the total number of people claiming such allowance is just 1.22 million.
  • The ONS conducts employment and unemployment survey every month but compares between data of three months i.e. quarterly comparisons are made.
  • In 2014, the economy of UK experienced a major change because the employment rate jumped by 280000 points to reach the biggest quarterly high of all times to record a number of 30.15 million. An important thing to note down is that such an increase in employment was last seen in Britain in the year 1971. The employment though increased well, it was the wage growth of people that drew attention of various governmental agencies. The wage growth in UK is going flat at 0.9% from the past 5-6 months which is not even at par with the current inflation rate of 2% here. Thus much of work is required to be done in this regard and a lot of major policy changes could improve the same numbers.

    There are many learning based employment apprenticeships schemes in Birmingham available for young people (aged 16 - 19 etc) - one provider of apprenticeships (Gordon Franks)